Skip to Main Content

Physical Therapist Assistant - Researching in the Technical Phase

AMA style basics

American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 11th Edition

  1. Scholarly sources that are retrievable (i.e. journal articles through the college library databases) are listed at the end of the project, in the order in which they were introduced in the body of the paper. Number them with arabic numerals, 1, 2, 3...
  2. Unretrievable materials that haven't been accepted for publication, or personal communications (oral, written, or email) are cited parenthetically in the body of the project.
  3. In the body of the paper, use an arabic numeral superscript after the author(s), or after the passage that you are citing. For example:

Lewis and McAuliffe (superscript 3) 


AMA style example


  1. Svensson-Raskh A, Schandl A, Holdar U, Olsén MF, Nygren-Bonnier M. “I Have Everything to Win and Nothing to Lose”: Patient Experiences of Mobilization Out of Bed Immediately After Abdominal Surgery. Physical Therapy. 2020;100(12):2079-2089. doi:10.1093/ptj/pzaa168
  2. Delft LMM van, Bor P, Valkenet K, Slooter AJC, Veenhof C. The Effectiveness of Hospital in Motion, a Multidimensional Implementation Project to Improve Patients’ Movement Behavior During Hospitalization. Physical Therapy. 2020;100(12):2090-2098. doi:10.1093/ptj/pzaa160
  3. Lewis J, McAuliffe S, O'Sullivan P, Whiteley R. "Musculoskeletal Physical Therapy After COVID-19: Time for a New 'Normal'"
    Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2021; 51(1) 0190-6011 doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.0102

More on AMA Style Citation