Skip to Main Content

HIS 260: Russia from Tsarism to Putin

What is MLA style?

The MLA citation style is a set of writing and citation rules created by the Modern Language Association. Generally, this style is used by students in the liberal arts and the humanities.

Use the menu at left to quickly find different citation types.

The Core Elements

Citations in the 8th edition of the MLA style are all made up of 9 elements, called core elementsThese are elements common to most citations.  By using the core elements, any item can be cited, regardless of format.  Please play close attention to the punctuation after each element.

When an element is unavailable, it is simply skipped.

A crucial concept for the new MLA style is the concept of containers. A container is the larger work that includes the source. A chapter is contained in a book; an article is contained in a periodical; an episode of a sitcom is contained in the series, etc.  

Now let's see how these core elements can be used to format the most common types of citations!  BooksArticlesWebsites, and Other Formats

Works Cited: Books

Item type Example Citation
One author

Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. Penguin Books, 2003.

Two authors

Author Last Name, First Name, and 2nd Author First Name, Last Name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Three or more authors

Author Last Name First Name, et al. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication. 

(When there are three or more authors, use only the first author's last name and first name, followed by "et al.")

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Edited book, one editor

Editor Last Name, First Name, editor. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Edited book, two editors

Editor Last Name, First Name, and Editor First Name, Last Name, editors. Book Title Publisher, year.

Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, editors. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry& Holt, 2000.

Edited book, three or more editors

Editor Last Name, First Name, et al., editors. Book Title. Publisher, Year.

Johnson, Norinne G. et al., editors. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls. American Psychological Association, 2001.

Chapter, essay, short story, or poem in an anthology or edited book

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter, Essay, etc." Book Title, edited by Editor First Name, Last Name, Publisher, Year, Page numbers.

Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery." Literature: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by Robert DiYanni, McGraw Hill, 2008, pp. 409-15.

Introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword in an anthology or edited book

Author Last name, First name. "Title of Section (if available)." Name of Section.Book Title, edited by Editor's First name, Last name, Publisher, Year, Page numbers.

DiYanni, Robert. "Literature: Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking." Introduction. Literature:

     Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by DiYanni, McGraw Hill, 2008, pp. 1-23.

Entry in a reference book

Author Last name, First name. "Entry Title. "Reference Book Title, edited by Editor First name Last name, Edition number (if available), volume number (if available), Publisher, Year.

Allen, Anita L. "Privacy in Health Care. "Encyclopedia of Bioethics, edited by Stephen G. Post, 3rd. ed., vol. 4, Macmillan-Thomson, 2004.

If the entry is unsigned, begin with the entry title.

"Currency." Dictionary of Economic Terms, edited by Charles Rhodes, Random House, 2009.

E-book from a database

Author Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of publication. Name of Database, permanent link.

Nadler, Reldan S. Leading with Emotional Intelligence: Hands-on Strategies for Building Confident and Collaborative Star Performers.  McGraw Hill, 2011. eBooks on EBSCOhost,  http://ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/loginurl=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=339122&site=ehost-live.

E-book from an e-reader

Author Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of publication. Name of E-book Provider, URL for e-book.

Slawenski, Kenneth. J.D. Salinger: A Life. New York: Random House, 2011. Amazon.com, amzn.com/0812982592.

Works Cited: Articles

Item type Example Citation
Periodical article, print

Author Last name, First name. "Article Title" Periodical Title, vol., no., year, p. (or pp. for range).

Hernandez-Reguant, Ariana. "Copyrighting Che: Art and Authorship under Cuban Late Socialism." Public Culture, vol. 16. no. 1, 2004, pp. 1-29.

Periodical article, database

Author Last name, First name. "Article Title." Periodical Title, vol., no.,year, p. (or pp. for range). Database Name, permanent/stable URL (or DOI if available).

Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Note: If a Digital Object Identifier (doi) is available, use that instead of the URL.

Chan, Evans. Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3,  May 2000. Project Muse doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Scholarly article reprint, in a library database

Author Last name, First name. "Article Title." Periodical Title, vol., no.,year, p. (or pp. for range). Database Name, permanent/stable URL (or DOI if available). Originally published in Periodical Title, vol., no.,year, p. (or pp. for range).

Note: Cite the article as a regular article from a database, then add "Originally published in" and the information from the original publication.

Bartel, Roland. "Life and Death in Eudora Welty's 'A Worn Path.'" Short Story Criticism, edited by Anna J. Sheets, vol. 27, 1998, pp. 344-45. Literary Criticism Online, https://ezproxy.mc3.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=7150807&site=eds-live&scope=site. Originally published in Studies in Short Fiction, vol.14, no. 3, Summer 1977, pp. 288-90.

Works Cited: Artwork

Item type Example Citation
Artwork from a database

Artist's Last name, First name. Title of Image. Date of artwork (if available). Location of artwork (if available), Library Database, DOI or URL. Date retrieved (optional).

Monet, Claude. Water Lilies and Japanese Bridge. 1899. Princeton University Art Museum. Artstor, library-artstor-org.ezproxy.mc3.edu/asset/APRINCETONIG_10313684987. Accessed 20 Mar. 2023.  

Note: Remove the http:// or https:// element of URLs before entering them into the citation.

Artwork from a museum website

Artist's Last name, First name. Title of Artwork. Date of artwork, Medium of artwork, Location of artwork, City (if not in location name), DOI or URL. Date retrieved (Optional).

Esherick, Wharton H. Fireplace and Doorway. 1935-1938, White Oak, Stone, and Copper, Philadelphia Museum of Art, philamuseum.org/collection/object/84555.

Artwork from a general website

Artist's Last name, First name. Title of Artwork.  Date of artwork. Title of Website, Publisher of Website (if different than title), Publication date, URL. Date Retrieved (Optional).

Roberts, Deborah. Let Them Be Children. 2018. Art21, 24 Mar. 2023, art21.org/read/finding-contemporary-artists-for-the-classroom-an-entry-point. 3 Apr. 2023.

Artwork in a book

Artist's Last name, First name. Title of Artwork. Date of artwork, Location of artwork (if available). Book Title, Author's Last name, First name, Publisher name, Year of publication, page number(s).

Chau, Diem. Four Seasons. 2011. Big Art Small Art. Manco, Tristan, Thames & Hudson, 2014, p. 183.

In-person at a museum or institution where artwork is located

Artist's Last name, First name. Title of artwork. Date of artwork, Medium of artwork, Location of artwork, City (if not in location name).

Eakins, Thomas. Portrait of Dr. Samuel D. Gross (The Gross Clinic), 1875, Oil on Canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Works Cited: Websites

Item type Example Citation
Web page

Author Last name, First name. "Web Page Title." Web Site Title, date of publication, URL.

Green, Joshua. "The Rove Presidency." The Atlantic, Sept. 2007, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2007/09/the-rove-presidency/306132/.

Note: Remove the http:// or https:// element of URLs before entering them into the citation.

Web page, no author

If no author is provided, begin with the Web page title.

"Healthy Weight." Centers for Disease Control, 15 May 2015, www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/.

Entry in an online reference work (GVRL)

Author Last name, First name. "Entry Title." Reference Book Title, edited by editor First name Last name, edition number, volume number, Publisher, Year, page number(s). Name of the Database, source URL.

Newton, David E. "Science History." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner, 5th ed., vol. 7, Gale, 2014, pp. 3861-3862. Gale Virtual Reference Library, ezproxy.mc3.edu:2048/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do? id=GALE%7CCX3727802140&v=2.1 & u=viva2_jsrcc& it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid= 2c9d5549af95bc6e80d0d500fe06def5.

Tweet (Twitter Post)

Username. "Text of the Tweet." Twitter, Date, Time, URL.

@persianwiki. "We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection." Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., twitter.com/persianwiki/status/2298106072.

Facebook status update/Facebook page

Author Last name, First name, or Username. "Title of Status Update or Facebook Page." Facebook, Date of Publication, URL.

Pinker, Steven. "Timeline." Facebook, 2 Sept. 2011, www.facebook.com/stevenpinkerpage/.

Gaiman, Neil. "Please Celebrate Leap Year in the Traditional Manner." Facebook, 29 Feb. 2012, www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016.

Discussion board post

Author Last name, First name, or Username. "Subject Line of Discussion Post." Web Site Title, Date of Publication, URL.

DePino, Logan. "My Board Game Rules." BoardGame Geek, June 6, 2016, boardgamegeek.com/thread/1586834/my-board-games-rules.

Citing Generative A.I.

Works Cited: Other formats

Item type Example Citation

Online Album

Music can be cited in multiple ways. Mainly, this depends on the container that you accessed the music from. Generally, citations begin with the artist's name. Composers or performers might also list them—otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. The album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer, followed by the publication date. If information such as the record label or name of the album is unavailable from your source, do not list that information.

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,           www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

Spotify (Song) 

Morris, Rae. "Skin." Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify,         open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.

TV Show

"Episode Title." Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013.

TV Show on the Web

"Episode Title." Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu,www.hulu.com/watch/511318.

Online video clip

Author name or Username. "Title of Video." Web Site Title, Date, URL.

Astley, Rick. "Never Gonna Give You Up." YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009, youtu.be/dQw4w9WgXcQ.

Video/DVD recording

Film Title. Directed by Director's First name, Last name, performance by leading actor, name of distribution company, and release date.

Ripley's Game. Directed by Liliana Cavani, performance by John Malkovich, New Line Home Video, 2004.

Interview

Example of published interview:

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. "English Is the Hero." Interview with Diri I. Teilanyo. No Condition is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13-19.

Example of an interview conducted by the researcher:

Walcott, Derek. Interview. By Susan Lang, 22 Oct. 2002.

Class handout or other unpublished document

Author Last name, First name. "Document Title." Year. Description of document.

Jackson, Jonas. "Midterm Review." 2016. Class handout.

Allen, Carrie. "Comma Usage." 2016. Class notes for ENG 101.

If there is no title, cite without it.

Thompson, Susan. Class handout. 2016.

Digital file (PDF, Word file, MP3, etc.) not online

Author Last name, First name. "Document Title" (or description). Date. File format.

Hamilton, Grace. Lecture on Edgar Allan Poe. 2016. MP3.

Bible, Qu'ran, and other holy works

Begin the citation with the title of the work. Optional: the name of the version can be recorded after the title.

The Holy Bible. Standard Version. Crossway-Good News, 2003.

The Qu'ran: A New Translation. Translated by Abdel Haleem, Oxford UP, 2008.

Government report, print

Government Agency. Title of Report. Publisher, Country. Date of Publication.

Dept. of Labor. Child Care: A Workforce Issue. GPO, United States. 1988.

Note: The Government Printing Office publishes many government reports, abbreviated as "GPO."

Government report, Web

Follow the example above, but add the website name and the source's URL.

United States. Dept. of State. Diplomatic List. GPO, Spring 2016. U.S. Dept. of State,www.state.gov/s/cpr/rls/dpl/c70977.htm.

   

In-Text Citations: Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing

Item type Example Citation
One author in the text

Johnson has argued that both story interpretations are valued (178).

Note: Location information, such as page numbers, must be given if available, both when quoting directly and with paraphrases.

One author in reference Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin 5).
Two authors in the text Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-11), hold the opposite point of view.
Multiple authors in the reference The dystopian concept resonates deeply with readers (Rabkin, Greenberg, and Olander vii).
Multivolume work

When referring to a specific page reference in a multivolume work, follow this format: (Author Last name Volume number: page numbers)

Some believe this stance is antiquated (Greene 2: 1-10).

When referring to an entire volume of a multivolume work, follow this format: (Author Last name, vol. number)

Between 1945 and 1972, the political party system underwent profound changes (Schlesinger, vol. 4, 3-7).

Work with no author in reference.

Give the full title or an abbreviated version of the title:

International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s ("Decade" 27).

Note: In this example, "Decade" is an abbreviated form of the full title, "Decade of the Spy."

Corporate Author

Preferred form (include the corporate author in the text):

According to a study sponsored by the National Research Council, the population of China around 1990 increased by more than fifteen million annually (15).

Alternate form (corporate author in reference, may abbreviate):

Around 1990, the population of China was increasing by more than fifteen million annually (Natl. Research Council 15).

Two or more works by the same author, in reference

(Author's Last name, Title of Work, page numbers)

Shakespeare's King Lear has been called "a comedy of the grotesque" (Frye, Anatomy 237).

Two or more works by the same author in the text Northrop Frye considers Shakespeare's King Lear a "comedy of the grotesque" (Anatomy 237).
An indirect source in the reference

Use this format when citing material obtained secondhand and not directly from a source:

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an "extraordinary man" (qtd. in Boswell 2:450).

Multiple works in a single reference

Use a semicolon to separate multiple works cited in a single parenthetical reference,

(First work Author Last name page number; Second work Author Last name page number)

Longitudinal studies show these findings are valid (Fukuyama 42; McRae 101-03).

Digital media enhances creativity (Craner 308-11; Moulthrop, pars. 39-53).

Direct quotation in text, under four lines

If a direct quotation is under four lines, incorporate it into the text, placing the source between quotation marks. Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation before the period.

Riedling writes, "Information-literate students operate comfortably in situations with multiple answers" (5).

Direct quotation in text, four lines or more.

Quotations of 4 lines or more must be set off from the text and should begin on a new line. Indent the quote one inch from the left margin, and type it double-spaced. Do not use quotation marks. Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation after the period.

About the Kerala tradition, Blackburn writes:

The Kerala tradition, however, seldom honors our expectations: it lives in performance but holds no interactive audience. It presents one of the most popular stories in Indian literature. Still, it is not primarily a narrative tradition, and the everlasting, chaotic War Book, rather than one of the tightly plotted, earlier books, occupies center stage. (134)

Citing a work without page numbers

If a source does not include page numbers but does provide explicit paragraph or section numbers, cite these. In these situations, have a comma after the author's name.

"Eagleton has belittled the gains of postmodernism" (Chan, par. 41).

When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of reference numbers, no number is given in the parenthetical citation.

The utilitarianism of the Victorians "attempted to reduce decision-making about human actions to a 'felicific calculus'" (Everett).

Bible, Qu'ran, or other common source

Add edition information to the first parenthetical citation for a common source like The Bible.

In one of the most vivid prophetic visions in the Bible, Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

Common literature source

Add information (such as chapter and section numbers) to help readers locate the quotation in any work edition.

In A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft recollects many "women who, not led by degrees to proper studies, and not permitted to choose for themselves, have indeed been overgrown children" (185; ch. 13, sec. 2).

Formatting: General Details

Margins

  • One-inch margins should be used on all sides

Spacing

  • Double space your entire paper - header, text, and works cited
  • Single space after punctuation marks
  • Indent each paragraph five spaces from the left margin (can be done by hitting the tab key one time)

Font

  • Use a standard, readable 12-point font (Times New Roman, Arial, etc)

Formating: First Page

Note: Always follow instructions given by your professor, even if they contradict with MLA guidelines

Last Name & Page Number

  • Place your cursor in the header area of your document. Select right alignment.
  • Enter your last name, a space, then the page number.Screen shot of Microsoft Word's page Number option within the Header and Footer menu
    • Use a standard 12-point font (such as Times New-Roman)
    • Use standard numerals (1. 2, 3, etc)
    • Utilize the Page Number feature (right) within your Word Processor so the pages number themselves consecutively.

Your Name & Course Info

  • Place your cursor in the upper left area of your document (below the header area). Select left alignment.
  • Set your document to double spacing.
  • Enter your full name. Hit enter.
  • Enter your professor's name. Hit enter.
  • Enter your course name. Hit enter
  • Enter your date in the following format: Day Month Year. Hit enter.

Title

  • Place your cursor in the line following the date. Select center alignment.
  • Type in your title. Only italicize or use quotation marks if referring to the title or another work within your title. Do not underline. You may write with Standard capitalization or Title Capitalization; do not write in ALL CAPS. 

Text

  • Hit enter after your title. Select left alignment. Hit tab once to indent.
  • Begin typing your text. Be sure to maintain double spacing and indent with each new paragraph.

Sample header for MLA paper

Formatting: Hanging Indent

Save time by using Microsoft Word to format the hanging indent:

[1] Select the text you would like to format (you can select your entire list of citations, for example, to format all at once)

[2] From the Home tab in Word, select the arrow next to Paragraph

[3] Next, under Special, select Hanging

[4] Click OK.  Your selected text will now be formatted with a hanging indent.

Additional Help and Handouts

Looking for help generating MLA citations? Try these websites...

  • Citation Builder: MLA tool from North Carolina State University
  • RefMe is a good tool, but requires creating a free account.
  • EasyBib is an ad-supported website that includes MLA 8, APA 6 and others.